Aggregate - mixture of sand and gravel.
Alluvial - material which has been eroded and deposited elsewhere in the form of sediments. It also describes deposits of materials that have been eroded from bedrock and deposited in sediments.
Delta - a deposit formed near the mouth of a river or stream, or tidal channel, by sediments carried downstream and deposited in a lake or sea.
Dredge - a device which brings materials (sands, gravels, boulders) from the seafloor to the surface. Several types are possible, using either suction (pumps) or mechanical action.
GPS - Global Positioning System - a means of navigating using signals emitted by satellites.
Ilmenite (FeTiO3) - a mineral often mined from beach sands for titanium.
Isostatic adjustment - vertical motions in the Earth's crust caused by addition or removal of masses of rock
Lode gold - gold which is found crystallized in bedrock. Is usually mined by sinking underground shafts or by open-pit mining if it is close to the surface.
Longshore bar - submerged lenticular body of sand or gravel beyond the surf zone.
Mineral sand - any sand of economic interest. May include magnetite (iron), rutile and ilmenite (titanium), zircon (zirconium and hafnium), gold, platinum group elements, and other economically attractive minerals.
Placer - used interchangeably with alluvial, especially in the US.
River terrace - former floodplain, now abandoned by the river which originally cut it either by lateral migration, or (commonly) by downcutting
Rutile (TiO2) - a white, heavy mineral, which is a principal source of titanium, also used in the manufacture of white paint
Seismic survey - an exploration method using sound to "visualize" layers of sediments below the surface
Sidescan survey - an exploration method using sound to map the surface distribution of sediments on the seafloor.
Sluice - a simple device for concentrating gold and other dense particles.
Submerged beach - former seaward limit of the shore, now under water due to sea level rise.
Submerged river channel - former river channel, now under water due to sea level rise.
Zircon (ZrSiO4) - a valuable heavy mineral, usually reddish in colour.